## M.C.S. Course Outline

__Master of Computer (MCS) Syllabus__

** **

**CS-501 : Fundamentals of Digital Computers** Credit Hour (2+1)

Decimal and Binary systems, Binary addition, subtraction, multiplication and division Octal and Hexa decimal number systems.

Fundamental concept of Boolean Algebra. Basic laws of boolean algebra. De Morgan’s Theorem. Sum of the Products and Product of Sums expressions. Three input variable expression. Maps for simplifying expression.

Logical design. Binary counter. Integrated circuits. Medium and Large scale integration. Digital circuits. Diodes and transistors. Diods and circuits. Resistor transistor Logic. Diode-transistor Logic. Transistor Logic. Emitter-coupled Logic.

Input Output devices. Computer Organization. Addressing techniques, Index resistors. paging and indirect addressing. Single address microprocessor, two address computers.

__Recommended Books :__

- T.C. Bartee (1977). Digital Computer Fundamentals. 4th Edition. McGraw Hill.
- T.C. Bartee (1975). Introduction to Computer Science. McGraw Hill.
- O’ Mally (1971). Introduction to Digital Computer. Halt, Rinehart and Winston, New York.
- M.A. Harroson (1965). Introduction to Switching and Automata Theory. McGraw Hill.
- G. Birkhott and T.C. Bartee (1970). Modern Applied Algebra. McGraw Hill.
- Deem, Muchow and Zeppa (1974). Digital computers, Circuits and Concept. Reston Publising Company.

** **

**CS-502 : Automata Theory** Credit Hour (3+0)

Set notation properties and operation. Relations, Properties of Relations, Equivalence of Relations, Closure of Relations, Graph and tree Notations.

Sequential circuits, Synthesis of Synchronous Sequential circuits. Transition diagram. Finite state machines. machines. Moore & Mealy machine. Capabilities & Limitation of finite state machine, state equivalence & Machine Minimization. Simplification of Incompletely specified machine. Interactive networks.

Fundamental Mode Circuits. State Assignment in Asynchronous Sequential circuits. Plus Mode Circuits.

State assignment using partitioning lattice of closed partitions over & generation of closed partitions. Information flow in sequential machines. Decomposition & Synthesis.

Experiments; Homing Experiments, Distinguishing Experiments Machine. Identification Experiment, Fault detection experiment. Design of diagnosable machine.

Finite memory machines, Definite machines, memory span w.r.t. output sequence information less machine.

Inert Linear Machine, Insert Linear Machine & rational. Transfer function, General Model Reduction of Linear Machines. Identification of Linear Machine, Application of Linear Machine to error correction.

Deterministic Recognizers, Transition Graph, Converting Non-deterministic to deterministic graphs. Regular expression. Transition graphs, Recognizing Regular sets, Regular sets corresponding to Transition graphs. Two way Recognizer.

__Recommended Books :__

- Zui-Cohavi. Sequential Circuits and Finite Automata Theory Tata. McGraw Hill.
- Abrahem Kendel, Fuzzuy Switching Automata; Theory and Application. Gamnee C. Lu.
- Arther Dfrje Dman Fremachandran R. Me. Theory and Design of Switching Circuits. John Willey & Co., New York.

** **

**CS-503 : Statistical Methods:** Credit Hour (2+1)

Probability and Probability Distributions Discrete & Continuos. Bivariate Probability , & Bivariate Probability Distributions. Point estimation methods (using numerical methods), including simultaneous estimation of several parameters. Drawing simple and stratified samples from finite & infinite populations.

__Recommended Books :__** **

- C.H. Coulden (1980). Methods of Statistical Analysis.
- Parzen. (1981) Modern Probability Theory and its Applications.
- Haq, M. (1984) Foundation of Probability and Statistics. Tahir Sons.

** **

**CS-504 : Statistical Methods Advanced** Credit Hour (2+1)

Interval estimation for different Probability Distribution parameters, using numerical methods. Testing of hypothesis. Application of Z, t, chi-square & F statistics. Test of goodness of fit, & test of independence in contingency tables.

Regression & correlation. multiple & partial correlation. Correlation ratio.

Analysis of variance, one, two three & four way classifications. Basic designs & their applications.

__Recommended Books :__

- C.H. Coulden (1980). Methods of Statistical Analysis.
- Parzen. (1981) Modern Probability Theory and its Applications.

** **

**CS-505 : Numerical Computing-I** Credit Hour (2 + 1)

Finite deference’s, polynomial & factorial polynomials, operators, formulas of interpolation for equal & unequal intervals. Numerical differentiation..

__Recommended Books :__

- A. Ralston, P. Robinowitz. (1978). A First Course in Numerical Analysis.
- Francis Scheild. (1968). Numerical Analysis.
- L. F. Shampine, R. C. Allan, Jr. (1973). Numerical Computing : An Introduction.

**CS-506 : Numerical Computing-I I** Credit Hour (2 + 1)

Functional approximation by Minimum-Maximum Error Technique, non-linear equations, simultaneous linear equations, Matrix iterative methods.

__Recommended Books :__

- A. Rolston, P. Robinowitz. (1978). A First Course in Numerical Analysis.
- Francis Schield (1968). Numerical Analysis.
- F. Shampine, R. C. Allan, Jr. (1973). Numerical Computing : An Introduction.

** **

**CS-507 : Linear Programming** Credit Hour (2+1)

Optimization 7 transportation problems. Simplex methods, theory & its applications. Degeneracy Problems. Duality theory and its ramification. Simplex method & transportation problem.

__Recommended Books :__

- Gruenberger, f. (1969) computing with BASIC Language. Cornfield Prezss. San Francisco.
- Kemeny, J. G. & Kurtz, T. E. (1971) Basic Programming, 2nd . ed. Wiley, N. Y.
- B.S. Gottfried (1975). Programming with BASIC McGraw Hills.
- Gruenberger, F. and G. Jaffary (1965) Wiley, N. Y.

** **

**CS-508 : Linear Programming Advanced** Credit Hour (2+1)

Degeneracy & transportation tables. Generalized transportation problems.

Network flows, maximal flows in networks, primal-dual algorithm for transportation problems.

Production allocation & transportation, Machine assignment methods.

Input-Output analysis in Economics, using linear programming techniques.

__Recommended Books :__

- A Charness; W. W. Cooper & A. Handerson. (1953) An Introduction to linear Programming Wiley.
- G. Hadley (1969). Linear Programming Adduson-Wesley.
- Vajda (1956) The Theory of Games & Linear Programming Methueu.
- E. H. Bownan. (1965). Production Scheduling by the transportation method Linear Programming.

** **

**CS-509 : Programming Languages** Credit Hour (2+1)

Introduction to data processing, systems of data storage Electronic data processing. Computer arithmetic, flow charts and programming techniques.

Programming in BASIC 7 FORTRAN, branching and looping, function 7 subroutines, matrices type of data files. Graphics.

__Recommended Books :__

- Gruenberger, F. (1969) Computing with BASIC Language. Confield Press. San Francisco.
- Kemeny, J. G. & Kurtz, T.E. (1971). Basic Programming, 2nd ed. Wiley, N. Y.
- B. S. Gottfried (1965) Programming with BASIC. McGraw Hills.
- Gruenberger, F. and G. Jaffary. (1965). Problems for Computer Solution. Wiley, N. Y.

** **

**CS-510 : Programming Languages Advanced** Credit Hour (2+1)

Numbers, Arithmetic & Variables, Decision & Contract, loop control, Input types, Output types sets of variables, subprograms (basic & details), Logical values, character values, Magnetic tape Input Output.

__Recommended Books :__

- J. B. Moore, & L. J. Makela. (1978) Structure FORTRAN with WATFIV. Reston Publishing Co. Virginia.
- Cress, P; Darksen. P; Grham, J. W. (1970). FORTRAN IV, with WATIV Prinstorn Hall. Inc.
- Gotfried, B.S. (1972) Programming with FORTRAN-IV (1972). Quantum Publishers, N. Y.

** **

**CS-511 : Models and Inference** Credit Hour (2+1)

Statistical models and random samples; informal methods of checking models; Estimation an prediction; Methods of Maximum likelihood and Least squares, and their applications within the frame-work of programming.

__Recommended Books :__

- M. Atiqullah. (1988). Basic Statistics with Computer Role. Kifayat Academy, Karachi.
- J. S. Milton & Jesse C. Arnold. (1986) Probability and Statistics in the Engineering and Computer Science. McGraw Hill.

** **

**CS-512 : Advanced Assembly Language** Credit Hour (2+1)

Fundamental concepts, Machine language, Registers, addressing, Relative addressing, machine language instruction Formats. Assembly language. Symbolic coding and assembly systems. Macros. Defining storage and defining constants. Program loops. Code Conversion. Subroutines and subroutine linkage. Parameter passing techniques. Input/Output considerations. System and utility program. Interrupts. Operating system concepts. The instruction set. Program design. Documentation. Debugging. testing & maintenance.

__Recommended Books :__

- Alan R. Miller (1987). Assembly language Techniques for IBM PC. Sybex Inc. U.S.A.
- George W. Gorline (1987). Assembly and Assemblers. prentice Hall.

**CS-513 : Computer Architecture** Credit Hour (2+1)

Architecture Attributes, Organization Attributes, Architectural Development (History), Machine Compatibility v/s Program Behavior. Flynn’s Classification of Computer Architecture (SISD, SIMD, MISD, MIMD Architectures), Shared v/s Distributed Memory Architecture under MIMD classification, Tightly coupled and Loosely couples systems, Bernstein’s conditions. Two state logic, Performance measurement of commuter system (MIPS, MFLOPS and Throughput calculations), Common bus architecture, Logic families and their characteristics (TTL, MOS & ECL), Interfacing of various logic families. Difference b/w Microprocessors and Microcontrollers architectures, Open Architecture v/s Close Architectures, CISC, RISC, Single Task & Super-Scalar (K-Issue) Processors, WINTEL Architecture. CPU performance factors (1. Clock-speed, 2.Bus-sizes, 3.Numeric processors, 4. Micro-Code efficiency, 5. Cache Memories, L1,L2,L3), Pentium Cache Organization, Pipeline Architectures. Designing of Program-Counter, Memory Address Register, Instruction Register, Control Unit (Control Matrix, Microprogrammed), ALU, etc. Micro v/s Macro Instructions. Development of Assembly language. Variable Machine Cycles.

__Recommended Books :__

- M.Moris Mano. Computer System Architecture.
- William Stalling. Computer Organization and Architecture.

** **

**CS-514 : Discrete Mathematics** Credit Hour (3+0)

Sets, Combinatorics, Sequences, Formal logic, Propositional and predicate calculus, Methods of Proof, Mathematical Induction and Recursion, loop invariants, Relations and functions, Pigeon whole principle, Trees and Graphs, Optimization and matching.

__Recommended Books :__

- Discrete Mathematics and Its Applications, by Kenneth H. Rosen (Fifth Edition) McGraw-Hill Science/Engineering/Math, Released: 09 September, 2002 - ISBN: 0072424346
- Discrete and Combinatorial Mathematics, by Ralph P. Grimaldi (Fifth Edition) Rose-Hulman Institute of Technology, Publisher: Addison-Wesley Published: 07/17/2003, ISBN: 0-201-72634-3

** **

**CS-601 : Data Base System** Credit Hour (2+1)

Basic concepts: Storage Structure; Data Structure and corresponding operators; on Different approaches. Relational Data Structure ; System R Architecture; Data Structure of System R; Data Manipulation; EMBEDDED SOL; The External level of System R; The Internal level of System R; Query by Example; Relational Algebra; Relational Calculus; Further Normalization..

The Architecture of an IMS System (Information Management System) IMS Data Structure, The External level of IMS: IMS Data Manipulations The Internal level of IMS: IMS logical Data base; IMS Secondary Indexing: IMS fast path data base. The Architecture of a DBTG: DBTG Data Structure; The External level of DBTG Data Manipulation.

United Data base Languages; A comparison of the Relational and Network approaches.

__Recommended Books :__

- C. J. Date. And introduction to Database System . John Wiley & Co., New York.

**CS-602 : Structured Programming** Credit Hour (2+1)

Logical Commentary in Structured Programming, Logical Commentary in Stepwise abstraction.

Verifying Structured programs, correctness of Structured and prime Programs. Trace tables for proving program correctness, Disjoined rules, Verifying Fardo Programs, Loopinvariants. Inventing Structured programs, programming by stepwise refinement and by stepwise reorganization, Detailing and Design.

__Recommended Books :__

- Strunk, W & E. B. White (1972) The Elements of Style McMillan New York.
- Chang, C & R. C. Lee (1973). Academic Press, N. Y.
- Burge, W. H. (1975) Recursive Programming Techniques Reading Mass: Addison Wesley.
- Linger, R. C : H. D. Mills & Witt, B. I : (1979). Structure Programming Addison-Wesley.
- Haperoft. J.E : & J. D. Ullman. (1969). Formal Languages and their Relation to Automata Reading Mass: Addison- Wesley.

**CS-603 : Operations Research** Credit Hour (2+1)

Elements of Dynamic Programming. Model & its application. Dimentionality in Dynamic Programming Model. Methods & Applications of Integer Programming. Deterministic Inventory Models. Poison Queuing Models.

__Recommended Books :__

- H. A. Taha. (1980). Operation Research, An Introduction.
- Kauf Man. (1979). Methods And Models of Operation Research.
- Hillier & Lieberman. (1979). Introduction to Operation Research.
- Churchman, C. V; R. A. Cheff; E. L. Arnoff: (1980). Introduction to Operation Research.
- Saaty. (1980). Mathematical Methods of Operation Research.

**CS-604 : Operations Research Advanced** Credit Hour (2+1)

Introduction to Matrix Algebra. Sets, functions, convex sets. Applied Linear Programming. Simplex Method & its development.

Dual Problem & post Optimality Analysis. Transportation Problems. Advanced Linear Programming & Parametric Programming.

__Recommended Books :__

- H. A. Taha: (1980). Operation Research, An Introduction.
- Kauf Man. (1979). Methods And Models of Operation Research.
- Hillier & Lieberman. (1979). Introduction to Operation Research.
- Churchman, C. V; R. A. Cheff; E. L. Arnoff: (1980). Introduction to Operation Research.
- Saaty. (1980). Mathematical Methods of Operation Research.

__ __

**CS-605: Digital and Analog Computers and Servo-Mechanism** Credit Hour (2+1)

DIGITAL COMPUTERS:

Introduction to digital computers, Boolean algebra Binary counting. Logical circuit. Gates, AND, OR, NOT, NAND , NOR, Evaluation of Logical diagrams. Flip Flop, RS & JR Flip Flop. Memory circuits Clock. DTL, TTC and ECC.

ANALOG COMPUTERS:

Operational Amplifier, Solution of equation, Operational Amplifier difference between Digital & Analog computers. Computer mechanism, Computer Language. Programming (outlines). Key puncher etc.

SERVO MECHANISMS:

Open loop & closed loop regulators, Types of servo, Regulation Error detectors, Error correctors, Transducer Amplifiers, Negative feed back amplifier theory. Servo diagram transfer function, Servo methods.

__Recommended Books :__

- T.C. Bartee: (1977). Digital Computer Fundamentals McGraw Hill. N . Y.

** **

**CS-606 : Decision Theory** Credit Hour (2+1)

Loss function. Risk & Average Loss. Class of admissible functions. Minimax principles & its application to numerical problems consisting of several variables. Linear & quadratic losses & their cases to multivariate cases.

Prior distributions. Bayes decision procedures. Posterior distributions, Numerical computation of these distributions.

__Recommended Books :__

- Chackol G: (1972). Computer-Aided Decision Making. American Elsevier, N. Y.
- Raiffa & Scheffler: (1977). Decision Theory.

**CS-607 : Numerical Computing Advanced-I** Credit Hour (2+1)

Numerical Integration. Solution of ordinary differential equation. Approximation of function by least square methods.

__Recommended Books :__

- Ralston, P. Robinowitz: (1977). A First Course in Numerical Analysis.
- Francis Scheid: (1968). Numerical Analysis.
- L. F. Shampine, R. C. Allen, Jr. : (1973). Numerical computing.

** **

**CS-608: Numerical Computing Advanced-II** Credit Hour (2+1)

Matrix Inversion techniques, Simplex method for solving linear programming problems, Eigen Vectors of matrices.

__Recommended Books :__

- A. Ralston, P. Robinowitz: (1977). A First Course in Numerical Analysis.
- Francis Scheid: (1968). Numerical Analysis.
- L. F. Shampine, R. C. Allen, Jr. : Numerical Computing.

**CS-609: Introductory Computer Simulation** Credit Hour (2+1)

System models. Principles of System Modeling. Simulation study. Discrete event simulation. Multiqueue & Multiserver models Queuing Statistics & its bias.

General purpose simulation system & its organization, (GPSS) Random distribution.

Indirect addressing, Looping, Save values, Tabulation debugging Statements.

Sim-script & its organization, events, variables, Temporary entities, Grouping entities in sets. Transfer & conditional statements. input/output in Simscript & Statistical calculation. Subprogram.

__Recommended Books :__

- F. J. Maryanski: (1980). Digital Computer Simulation Hayden Book Company, New Jersey.
- Gorden, G: (1975). The Application of GPSS to Discrete System Simulation. Prentice Hall.
- ACH Simulattor, Vol,. 7. No 1, January 1976.
- Fishman, G. S. : (1973). Concepts and Methods in Discrete Event Digital Simulation. N. Y. Wiley.
- Chao, L. L. :(1969). Statistics: Method and Analysis. McGraw Hill.
- Goldstein, R. B: (1973). “Chi-square Quantiles”, Algorithm 451, Communications of the ACM, Vol. 16, No. 8.
- Hildebrand, F. B: (1956). Introduction to Numerical Analysis. McGraw Hill.
- Horn Beck, R. W: (1975). Numerical Methods. Quantum Pubishers.

**CS-610 : Applications of Computer Simulation** Credit Hour (2+1)

Probability density functions and distribution functions. Conditional and joint probability, distributions. Statistical independence. Independence and Correlation.

Random numbers, Generation of random numbers, Generation of discrete and continuous probability distributions Uniformity and independence of random numbers. Generation of Exponentially distributed and normally distributed random numbers.

Analysis of simulation experiments. Estimation of parameters in probability distributions,from values generated by simulation.

__Recommended Books :__

- F. J. Maryanski: (1980). Digital Computer Simulation Hayden Book Company, New Jersey.
- Gorden, G: (1975). The Application of GPSS to Discrete System Simulation. Prentice Hall.
- ACH Simulattor, Vol,. 7. No 1, January 1976.
- Fishman, G. S. : (1973). Concepts and Methods in Discrete Event Digital Simulation. N. Y. Wiley.
- Chao, L. L. :(1969). Statistics: Method and Analysis. McGraw Hill.
- Goldstein, R. B: (1973). “Chi-square Quantiles”, Algorithm 451, Communications of the ACM, Vol. 16, No. 8.
- Hildebrand, F. B: (1956). Introduction to Numerical Analysis. McGraw Hill.
- Horn Beck, R. W: (1975). Numerical Methods. Quantum Publishers.

** **

**CS-611: System Analysis & Design-I** Credit Hour (2+1)

Introduction to System Analysis/Design, Techniques in Data Processing applications. Feasibility Investigation, Feasibility Report, (Investigation, models, designs, effectiveness procedures) System Layout, Preparation and handling of Data. Data specification File organization, File specifications, System Flowcharts, Programming techniques, Program specification, Test-Data, System Test, Systems Projection. System’s Implementation, Maintenance and Review, Case study.

__Recommended Books :__

- Robert J. Thierlouf: System Analysis & Design, “A Case Study Approach”/ Charless Merrill Publishing Company.
- Andrew Parbiu: System Analysis.
- John M. Fitz, Gerald Andra F., Gerald : Fundamentals of System Analysis. John Wiley & Sons Publishing Company.

**CS-612: System Analysis & Design-II** Credit Hour (2+1)

Project. Designing a system.

__Recommended Books :__

- Robert J. Thierouf: System Analysis & Design, “A Case Study Approach”/ Charless Merrill Publishing Company.
- Andrew Parbiu: System Analysis.

** **

**CS-613 : Operating System** Credit Hour (2+1)

Generation operating systems. Early history & future trends. Hardware, Software and Firmware. Process Management: Process concepts, Asynchronous concurrent processes. Monitors & the ADA redezvou; Deadlock. Storage management: Real storage, Virtual storage organization. Processor Management: Job and processor schedule, multiprogramming. Auxiliary storage management: Disk scheduling, file & database system. Performance measurement, monitoring & evaluation, Analytic modeling, Networks & security: Network operating system & operating system security. Case studies: UNIX system, VAX, CP/M, MVS, VM.

__Recommended Books :__

- H. M. Deitel. (1986). An Introduction to Operating System. Addison-Wesley.
- William s. Davis. (1985). Operating System. Addison-Wesley.
- Lubomir Bic. (1987). Logical Design of Operating System 2/D. Prentice Hall.

**CS-614: Advanced COBOL Programming** Credit Hour (2+1)

An Overview of structured programming techniques. Structure of COBOL Programs. Records, Files & Table handling. Sequential, Indexed sequential and Relative File Processing. Sorting & Merging Files. Subprograms & Nested Programs. Other advanced COBOL features.

__Recommended Books :__

- A. S. Philippakis Leonard J. Kazmier. (1986). Structured COBOL. McGraw Hill.
- A.S. Philipp;kis Leonard J. Kazmier. (1986). Information system through COBOL. McGraw Hill.

** **

**CS-615: Software Engineering** Credit Hour (2+1)

Introduction to Software Engineering, Software requirements, Planning and design concepts. Software Lifetime, Software maintenance, Software Engineering for Projects, A Life cycle approach to software engineering. Software tools, Structured Programming, Software fault tolerance, Project support libraries.

__Recommended Books :__

- Richaro E. Fairley. (1987). Software Engineering Concepts. McGraw Hill Book Co.
- Doug Bell & Ian Morrey. (1988). Software Engineering A Programmer’s Approach. Prrentice Hall.
- Michael S. Deutsch & Ronald R. Willis; (1988) . Software Quality Engineering. Prentice Hall.

**CS-616: Artificial Intelligence** Credit Hour (2+1)

Introduction to Artificial intelligence, Artificial intelligence methods & techniques, Problems & Problem solving methods, Production system, Control Strategies, Heuristic Search & functions, Knowledge representations & the frame Problem.

__Recommended Books :__

- D. Cohen & E. A. Feigenbaum. (19870. Hndbook of Artificial Intelligence’s. Pitman Books, London.
- A. Bonnet & Jack Howlett. (1985). Artificial Intelligence. Prentice Hall International.
- Elaine Rich. (1987). Artificial Intelligence. McGraw Hill.

** **

**CS-617: Expert Systems** Credit Hour (2+1)

Introduction to expert systems, Heuristic search, The architecture of expert systems, Components of an expert system, The socials impact of expert systems, Evaluating an expert system, Fuzzy reasoning systems, How to build an inference engine, Knowledge engineering, Machine Learning strategies, Natural language interface, Formal and Informal methods, TURBO PROLOG

__Recommended Books :__

- Richard Forsyth. (19870. Expert Systems. Chapman and Hall.
- A. Bonnet, J. P. Hoton, J. M. Troung-Ngoc. (1988) Expert Systems. Prentice Hall International.
- Daniel H, Marcellus.(1988) Expert Systems Programming in TURBO Prolog. Prentice Hall.

** **

**CS-618: Computer Graphics** Credit Hour (2+1)

Introduction to Computer Graphics. Line & dot oriented graphic equipment’s. Curve drawing. Two-dimensional, graphic objects, transformations and Graphic algorithms, 3-D, graphics objects, Transformations and Graphic algorithms. Graphic Software packages for 2-D and 3-D. Graphic languages and Computer graphic standard. Applications to different fields.

__Recommended Books :__

- John Rankin. (1987). Computer graphics, Software Construction. Prentice Hall Internationals.
- Goorger Marshall. (1987). Computer grtaphics in application.. Prentice Hall International
- Harrington.(1988). Computer graphics A programming Approach. 2/e McGraw Hill.

**CS-619: Microprocessor and Applications** Credit Hour (2+1)

Structure of Microprocessor; Technical data; Programming Model; Data type; Register; Processor status register. Bus system; Processor signal; Introduction to Programming and data transfer; Data Manipulation; Transfer of Control & Programming technique; Digital I/O; interrupts; Various application of Microprocessors.

__Recommended Books :__

- Fred Halsall, Paul Lister, Richard Schmitt and Louis L. Covert. (1986). Microprocessor Fundamentals. Johbn Willey & Sons.
- Edward J. Pashow. (1986). Microprocessor Technology & Microcomputers. McGraw Hill.
- S. J. Cahill. (1985). Designing Microprocessor-Based Digital Circuitry. Prentice Hall.
- John E. Uffenbeck. (19870. Microcomputers and Microprocessors Interfacing and Troubleshooting. Prentice Hall.

**CS-620: Compiler Construction** Credit Hour (2+1)

Introduction to Compiler theory; Syntactical specifications, grammar and languages; Terminology in programming analysis, Lexical analysis; Top-down and bottom down techniques; table techniques optimization and organization; Regular expression and finite state techniques; Storage organization and dynamic storage allocation; Symbol tables, semantic routines, error recovery, interpreters and load optimization; Intermediate code generation and optimization; One pass Compilation techniques; Object condes for subscripted variables storage mapping functions and Compilation of sequencing statements; mapping functions and Compilations; Detailed organization of a simple Complete Compiler.

__Recommended Books :__

- Brinch Hansen/(1987). Compiler Design. Prentice Hall.
- Tremblay. (1987). Theory & Practice of Compiler Writing. McGraw. Hill.

** **

**CS-621: Graph Theory** Credit Hour (2+1)

Basic definitions and representations of linear graphs; Cycle structures; Equivalence and mapping. Connectivity and independence; Planar graphs and Hamilton graphs; Graph Coloring; Combination theory and graphs.

__Recommended Books :__

- Tremblay & Manoher. (1987). Discrete Mathematical Structure with application to Computer Science. McGraw Hill .
- Even, Shimon (1973). Algorithmic Combinatrics. Macmillan Company.
- Harary.F; R.Z. Norman and D.Certwright (1965). Structural Model introduction to the theory of Directed graphs. John Wiley & Sons.

**CS-622: Data Communication and Networks** Credit Hour (2+1)

Introduction to data Communication; Communication organization; Problems in the scientific, engineering and data processing environment; The behavioral basis of data communication; Synchronous and asynchronous transmission; Beseband and analogue signaling techniques and channel capacity; Modulation techniques, communication Media. error Control; Introduction to computer networking; line switched and message switched type networks; Pocket switching, circuit switching, satellite and local networks; Link-capacity, average message length, traffic flow etc. for networks; introduction to centralized networks, time delay and cost trade-offs.

__Recommended Books :__

- Uyless Block. (1987). Data Communication & Distributed Network. Prentice Hall.
- Brenden Tangney & Donal O. Mahony. (1987). Local Area Networks and their applications. Prentice Hall.

**CS-623: Data Structures and Algorithm Analysis** Credit Hour (2+1)

Introduction to Complexity Analysis, Sorting and Searching Algorithms and their complexity analysis. Arrays and Linked Lists, Stacks and Queues and their applications, Hash tables, hashing functions. Introduction to NP, NP hard and NP Complete Problem. Trees (N-Ary, Binary search, AVL, Splay etc) and their operations (insertion, deletion etc), tree traversals and their applications, Binary Search Tree Balancing, Graphs, topological sort, shortest path and all-pairs shortest path algorithm and their comparisons. Minimum spanning trees, Dynamic Programming, Greedy Algorithms, Approximation Algorithms

__Recommended Books :__

- Thomas H. Cormen, Charles E. Leiserson, Ronald L. Rivest & Clifford Stein, “Introduction to Algorithms” Second Edition, MIT Press Released 01 September, 2001 - ISBN: 0262032937
- Mark Allen Weiss,"Data structures and algorithm analysis in C/C++", Addison-Wesley Publishing Company (1994)

**CS-624: Object Oriented Analysis and Design** Credit Hour (2+1)

The need for Object Oriented Analysis and Design, Introduction of Unified Processes, Understanding User Requirements, Introduction to the Case Study that should be followed throughout the course to explain each phase and their artifact, Use Cases, Conceptual Model, System Sequence Diagrams, Domain Model, Refining Domain Model, Contracts, Collaboration Diagrams; Sequence Diagrams, Use Case Realizations, Design Class Diagram, Design Patterns, Application of Design Patterns (GRASP and some GOF patterns), Design Class Diagrams- From Design to Implementation.

__Recommended Books :__

- Craig Larman,"Applying UML and Patterns, An introduction to Object Oriented Analysis and Design", Prentice Hall, 2002
- Simon Bennet, Steve McRobb, "Object Oriented Systems Analysis and Design Using UML (Second Edition )" McGraw-Hill, 2002
- Timothy C. Lethbridge and Robert Laganière, "Practical Software Development using UML and Java", McGraw Hill, 2001

**625/626: Data Warehousing and Data Mining** Credit Hour (2+1)

Introduction to Data Warehousing- Heterogeneous information, the integration problem, the Warehouse Architecture, Data Warehousing, Warehouse DBMS. Aggregations- SQL and aggregations, aggregation functions, grouping. Data Warehouse Models and OLAP Operations- Decision support, Data Marts, OLAP vs OLTP, the Multi-Dimensional data model, ROLAP vs MOLAP, Star and snowflake schemas, the MOLAP cube, roll-up, slicing, and pivoting. Data Warehouse Design- monitoring, wrappers, integration, data cleaning, data loading, materialised views, warehouse maintenance, OLAP servers, metadata.

Introduction to Data Mining- A View of the KDD Process, Problems and Techniques, Data Mining Applications, Prospects for the Technology. Data Mining Inputs and Outputs- Concepts, Instances, Attributes; Kinds of Learning, Kinds of Attributes, Preparing Inputs. Knowledge Representations, Decision Tables and Decision Trees, Classification Rules- Association Rules, Regression Trees and Model Trees, Instance-Level Representations. Data Mining Algorithms- One-R, Naïve Bayes Classifier, Decision Trees, Decision Rules, Association Rules, Regression, K-Nearest Neighbour Classifiers. Time series data analysis, Text mining, Web Mining. Evaluating Data Mining Results.

__Recommended Books :__

- Paulraj Ponniah, "Data Warehousing Fundamentals",John Wiley & Sons, 2001.
- Ralph Kimball, ""The Data Warehouse Lifecycle Toolkit: Expert Methods for Designing, Developing and Deploying Data Warehouses", John Wiley & Sons, 1998.
- Mehmed Kantardzic," Data Mining: Concepts, Models, Methods, and Algorithms", John Wiley & Sons, 2003.
- Jiawei Han and Micheline Kamber, "Data Mining: Concepts and Techniques", Morgan Kaufmann Publishers, 2001.

**CS-691 :**

**CS-692 : M.Sc. Thesis :** (Credit Hour 6 )

For only those who secure first class and pass all courses in M.Sc. (Prev) Examinations.

**CS-693 : Project :** (Credit Hour 3 )

For only those, who have passed all the courses of the last three semesters.