Vehicle Processing

  • Serial Number Restoration
  • Crash Determination

Vehicle Examination Lab
The vehicle examination laboratory has a number of different vehicles available for examination. They are used to simulate a range of crimes including theft from vehicles, vehicle accidents and situations where a vehicle has been used in committing a crime. This laboratory provides following services to assist law enforcement agencies:

  • Examination of chassis frame and chassis number of vehicle
  • Examination of engine number of vehicle
  • Serial number analysis and restoration
  • Analysis regarding digits of chassis/engine/serial number are genuine, self-punched or otherwise.


  • Vehicle examination casework
  • Quick, credible reports and computerized database
  • Preparation of SOPs for Vehicle Examination Unit
  • Involved in forensic awareness seminars arranged for Police, Prosecutors, Armed Forces and other Law Enforcement Agencies
  • Delivered lectures and presentation on Serial Number Analysis in “Police and Prosecutors Cooperation Training”  conducted by US Department of Justice, ICITAP
  • Local and foreign training of technical staff

Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA)

DNA (Deoxyribonucleic Acid) can be obtained from biological specimens left at crime scenes such as murder, aggravated battery, sexual assault, hit and run, burglary, etc. The biological specimens most often encountered include blood evidence, seminal fluid, or saliva. In serology, these body fluids are identified and, if needed, the biological material is then further tested utilizing DNA analysis (STR or short tandem repeat analysis). In additional to blood evidence, the crime laboratory will conduct serological examinations on other body fluids. The examination most frequently requested is for the identification of semen in connection with sexual assault cases. The third body fluid that is tested for is saliva. Certain items of evidence may contain saliva (Bacall cells). These exhibits may be used for DNA analysis and include such items as cigarette butts, drinking straws, soda/beer cans, masks, bottles, etc.
Determination of the type and characteristics of blood, blood testing, bloodstain examination, and preparation of testimony or presentations at trial are the main job functions of a forensic serologist, who also analyzes semen, saliva, other body fluids and may or may not be involved with DNA typing. It must be recognized, however, that in many crime labs, there may be no clear distinction between job title and job function.

There’s no substitute for Forensic Serology, whether for medical or forensic purposes. Blood’s presence always links suspect and victim to one another and the scene of violence. Bloodstain patterns tell a lot about position and movement during the crime, who struck whom first, in what manner, and how many times.
The Crime Laboratory Analysts will identify biological materials and determine species of origin. The Crime Laboratory Scientists will receive, secure, handle, inventory, return and preserve physical evidence collected in criminal investigations and submitted to the crime laboratory for examination or analysis. The basic principle of Forensic Serology in the modern forensic lab is to locate, identify the body fluid stains (such as blood, semen, saliva, vaginal secretions etc.) and save for the purpose of DNA analysis. There is no crime in the world which can be committed without leaving any trace behind. On the basis of this principle, forensic serologist’s job is to find, locate and identify the body fluids and other traces. “Failure of not finding the physical evidence at the crime scene does not mean that it is not present, physical evidence is always present when humans are not. Physical evidence cannot lie and purge itself when human are. Physical evidence is factual and can never be absent from the crime scene. (Prof. Locards)” Failure of not finding the physical evidence due to the lack of training can diminish its value. That is why the state of the art training is very important and integral part of this project.

Forensic Photography
Forensic Photography will be equipped with the state of the art digital image capturing and processing equipment, Forensic Photography unit acts as a custodian of the repository of digital imaging data captured by itself and the constituent forensic labs of the agency. Forensic Photography Unit provides the photographic services which include but are not limited to photo-documentation and digital image processing and analysis. It also offers expert testimony on resultant images and the findings of all technical analysis of digital media relating to criminal cases, and any other cases as directed by the Director General of the agency. These services are offered to all law enforcement agencies whoever is interested within the province of the Sindh and other provinces of the country, as and when needed in from all over Pakistan.

The main roles of the Forensic Photography Unit are as follows:

  • It assists the Forensic Scientists in criminal investigation process by providing digital images in the desired form through careful photo documentation and processing of the relevant images.
  • It assists the Forensic Pathologists in ascertaining the cause and manner of death by performing photographic analysis on media collected and submitted by the Laboratory Staff or local law enforcement agencies. It also performs photographic analysis on media as requested by other law enforcement agencies conducting medico-legal death investigations or criminal investigations.
  • It assists in the judicial process through creation of photographic prints, exhibits, and electronic files to be used by the Forensic Scientists of the Laboratory in criminal investigations.
  • It assists in the judicial process by testifying in Courts of Law, to the content of any image, the results of any and all analysis conducted, and the conclusions contained within the reports generated by the Forensic Photography Unit.



This Unit will provide two primary services: analysis of illegal or restricted drugs and analysis of blood, breath, and beverage samples for alcohol content. Methamphetamine, heroin, and marijuana are the most common types of drugs submitted for testing. Blood and urine samples will be analyzed in the laboratory for alcohol contents. This will also serve as the Appellate Lab for Drugs and Food cases registered under the relevant laws in the province.


Forensic toxicology is the medico- legal investigation of death, poisoning, and drug use. Postmortem Forensic toxicology determines the absence or presence of drugs and their metabolites, chemicals such as ethanol and other volatile substances, carbon monoxide and other gases, metals, and other toxic chemicals in human fluids and tissues, and evaluates their role as a determinant or contributory factor in the cause and manner of death.
The mission of Forensic Toxicology unit is adherence to international standard operating procedures, provision of professional and un-biased scientific services to the community in the field of forensic analysis of toxic substances. Aim is the use of latest techniques and technologies to obtain accurate and reliable results and their interpretation.

The forensic toxicologists are trained in latest instrumentations used all over the world including

  • Gas chromatography-mass spectrometery (gc-ms)
  • Gas chromatography-flame ionization detector (gc-fid)
  • Gas chromatography-nitrogen phosphorous detector (gc-npd)
  • Gc-mstox analyzer
  • High pressure liquid chromatography (hplc)
  • Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa)
  • Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ftir)
  • Thin layer chromatography (tlc)
  • Co-oximeter
  • Chemistry analyzer
  • Atomic absorption spectroscopy
  • Solid phase extraction

Services provided by forensic toxicology unit are:

  • Identification of toxic substances.
  • Screening and confirmatory tests for toxic substances.
  • Quantification of toxic constituents.
  • Expert witnessing in criminal and civil courts.
  • Research and development in the field of forensic toxicological analysis.
  • Training in forensic toxicology.

Trace Evidence

Trace Chemistry
The Trace Chemistry unit will analyze a wide variety of evidence types. Debris from an explosion or a fragment of an explosive device can be used to identify which type of explosive might have been used. Paint and glass from a hit-and-run accident or a burglary can be compared to see if evidence left at the scene can be tied to a suspect.
Numerous other types of evidence, such as hair and fiber can be analyzed by the Trace Chemistry section. Quite often a comparison is performed between an unknown and a known substance to determine if they could have shared a common origin. Several analytical tools are utilized by the trace chemist. The stereo microscope is used for close visual examinations and for preliminary chemical spot testing.
Analytical instruments are used to make comparisons and identifications. Some of the instrumentation used in the Trace Chemistry section includes gas chromatography, infrared spectroscopy, mass, spectroscopy, x-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive x-ray microanalysis.


A polygraph (popularly referred to as a lie detector) is an instrument that measures and records several physiological responses such as blood pressure, pulse, respiration and skin conductivity while the subject is asked and answers a series of questions, on the theory that false answers will produce distinctive measurements. The polygraph measures physiological changes caused by the sympathetic nervous system during questioning. Several other technologies are also used in the field of lie detection, but the polygraph is the most famous. An example of a different method which is commonly used is a device which monitors the response of the individual’s eye. If the iris contracts suddenly, this could indicate that the person is lying.

Firarm & Tool Marks

Firearms and Tool Marks Identification
It is an empirical comparative analysis that can determine if a striated or impressed mark was produced by a particular tool.


  • Examination of submitted firearms to determine manufacturer, model, Caliber, serial number, and functionality.
  • Examination of evidence bullets and cartridge cases to determine (with submitted firearms) if either or both were fired in or from the firearms.
  • Examination of evidence ammunition to determine the manufacturer, bullet type, and country of origin (where manufactured).
  • Examination of submitted tools in conjunction with evidence tool-marks or silicone casts to determine if the tool was used to create the tool-mark.
  • Restoration of altered, modified, or obliterated serial numbers.
  • Analysis of gunpowder patterns on a variety of evidence, using submitted firearms and ammunition to determine the distance from the muzzle to the point of impact.
  • Shooting scene reconstruction using trajectory analysis to determine the sequence of two or more events in a particular incident utilizing information derived from the physical evidence.
  • Shotgun Shots Pattern Analysis to determine the distance of the shooter from the target.

Firearms / Tool Marks Lab

Firearms &Tool-marks program of CDFST will be a very significant program of the Centre for Digital Forensics Science & Technology. The Firearms/Tool-marks program will impart facility for examining cases across the province and country or any other referred cases. The experts possess the required qualifications and training will train to devise protocols & SOPs. The experts will give training in recognition / maintenance / operations / assembling & disassembling of small firearms from Police Lines. This program will provide following services to assist law enforcement agencies:

  • Bullet Comparison
  • Cartridge Comparison
  • Working condition of Firearm
  • Range Determination
  • Pattern Analysis
  • Wound Ballistics
  • Gunshot Residue Detection and Analysis
  • Tool-marks Identification and Comparison


  • Examining and reporting cases of firearms and toolmarks
  • Preparation of SOPs for Evidence collection, preservation, transportation and receiving at laboratory
  • Preparation of SOPs for Ballistics Lab
  • Involved in forensic awareness seminars arranged for Police, Prosecutors, Armed Forces and other Law Enforcement Agencies
  • Delivered lectures on Forensic Ballistics in Navel Headquarters Islamabad
  • Delivered lectures in International Forensic Sciences Conference (EuroForensicsSouthAsia)
  • Indigenous and foreign training of technical staff

Latent Finger Prints


Thousands of years ago, Chinese used thumbprints on legal documents and on criminal confessions. It is perhaps the first sign of recognition that a person’s fingerprints are unique.
The use of fingerprints in the identification of criminals is the most frequently applied technique in forensic science. Fingerprints offer a powerful means of personal identification and still remain the most commonly used forensic evidence worldwide. No two individuals possess the same fingerprints. Because of this, fingerprints are an excellent means of identification. Moreover, while other visible human characteristics change – fingerprints do not change.
The Latent Fingerprint Department will be fully equipped Labs and high-quality scientific services are provided. It will ensure that all examinations and documentations will be done in compliance with guidelines as provided by any regulatory authority.

Services offered by Lab:

  • The highly quality scientific services offered by the Lab are:
  • Scientific examinations in the area of friction ridge analysis and comparison of latent finger and palm prints.
  • Comparison of the patent fingerprint impressions in the property cases.
  • Development and processing of latent finger and palm prints.
  • Report the findings and provide expert testimony relating to these examinations in the legal proceedings.
  • Establish the identity of the unknown deceased persons.
  • Record legible finger and palm prints.
  • Provide training and forensic field support to the law enforcement community.

Finger prints Lab

Fingerprinting is still the most reliable and easy way for criminal identification.  Fingerprints offer a perfect means of personal identification. Fingerprint section consists of two scientific officers and one scientific assistant. After necessary indigenous, foreign and extensive in-house training, the section is now capable of working on criminal as well as civil cases of fingerprint comparison. This lab provides following services to assist law enforcement agencies:

  • Fingerprint identification and comparison
  • Latent print enhancement
  • Recognition and classification of fingerprint patterns
  • Analysis and examination of finger, palm and foot print impressions recovered from crime scene and assessment of their suitability for comparison

Explosives Lab

The Explosives Section deals with the use of physical sciences and other disciplines including explosive science, fire and explosion investigation and risk analysis to help resolve issues in relation to civil and criminal law. Explosives section is also capable enough to provide training to different law enforcement agencies’ personnel which can be helpful for them to collect evidences from explosives scene in proper way. This lab will provide following services to assist law enforcement agencies:

  • Identification of explosive residues (post blast debris)
  • Identification of unknown explosive/hazardous material (pre blast)
  • Calculation of quantity of explosive used
  • Nature of Explosion (IED, VBIED, SUICIDE, etc.)
  • Identification of the triggering/initiation mechanism
  • Analysis of components of explosive devices
  • Examination of deactivated explosive devices
  • Electronic circuit analysis
  • Estimation of epic center


  • Explosives casework in collaboration with different agencies
  • Preparation of SOPs for Explosives Lab
  • Study regarding the role of forensic science in explosive analysis
  • Involved in forensic awareness seminars arranged for Police, Prosecutors, Armed Forces and other Law Enforcement Agencies
  • Delivered lectures on role of forensics in explosive analysis in Navel Headquarters Islamabad
  • Indigenous and foreign training of technical staff


Forensic pathology is a branch of Pathology concerned with determining the cause of death by examination of a dead body. The autopsy is performed by the pathologist at the request of the medico-legal authorities usually during the investigation of criminal law cases and civil law cases. Forensic pathologists are also frequently asked to confirm the identity of a cadaver (dead body or a corpse).
The forensic pathologist is a medical doctor who has completed training in anatomical pathology and who has subsequently sub-specialized in forensic pathology. He performs autopsies/post mortem examinations to determine the cause of death. The autopsy report contains an opinion about : The pathologic process, injury, or disease that directly results in or initiates a series of events which lead to a person’s death (also called mechanism of death), such as a bullet wound to the head, exsanguinations due to a stab wound, manual or ligature strangulation, myocardial infarction due to coronary artery disease, etc.), and the ‘manner of death’, the circumstances surrounding the cause of death, which includes:

  • Homicide
  • Accidental
  • Natural
  • Suicide

Examines and document wounds and injuries, both at autopsy and occasionally in a clinical setting. Collects and examines tissue specimens under the microscope (histology) in order to identify the presence or absence of natural disease and other microscopic findings such as asbestos bodies in the lungs or gunpowder particles around a gunshot wound.
Collects and interprets toxicological analyses on bodily tissues and fluids to determine the chemical cause of accidental overdoses or deliberate poisonings. Forensic pathologists also work closely with the Toxicologist, medico-legal authorities for the investigation of sudden and unexpected deaths.

Questioned Document

Questioned document examination is the forensic science discipline pertaining to documents that are (or may be) in dispute in a court of law. The primary purpose of questioned/forensic document examination is to answer questions about a disputed document using a variety of scientific processes and methods. Many examinations involve a comparison of the questioned document, or components of the document, to a set of known standards. The most common type of examination involves handwriting wherein the examiner tries to address concerns about potential authorship.
A document examiner is often asked to determine if a questioned item originated from the same source as the known item(s), and then present their opinion on the matter in court as an expert witness. Other common tasks include determining what has happened to a document, determining when a document was produced, or deciphering information on the document that has been obscured, obliterated or erased. Questioned document examination is also concerned with reconstruction of burnt or torn documents that might be considered important in a civil or criminal investigation.

Questioned Documents Lab
The primary purpose of questioned document examination is to counter questions about a disputed document using a variety of scientific processes and methods. The staff is highly trained in their section and now taking cases from different Law Enforcement Agencies of Pakistan. This section provides following services to assist law enforcement agencies:

  • Analysis and assessment of characters of signature, handwriting, typewriting and printed documents
  • Paper and ink examination
  • Examination of rubber stamps
  • Assessment of documents for alteration, addition or obliteration
  • Examination of charred documents
  • Examination of indentation marks or other marks