First Professional First Semester

Physiology & Histology Cr. Hrs. 3

1. Physiology of Nerve and Muscle
Chemical change in muscle on contraction. Action potential. Never action potential, skeletal, smooth, cardiac excitation contraction.

2. Blood
Composition, functions and genesis of formed elements. R.B.C, WBC and platelet. Fate of R.B.C, jaundice, reaction of blood, blood groups. Rh factors, ESR, blood volume, function of spleen, blood coagulation, haemophilia,, classification of anemias.

3. Circulatory System
Properties of cardiac muscles, origin and conduction of heart beat, cardiac cycle, ECG, heart sounds, cardiac output, stroke volume and heart rate. Nerve supply of heart. Coronary, pulmonary and skin circulation. Blood pressure, vasomotor center. Arterial pulse venous pulse, haemorrhage, circulatory changes in exercise, composition and circulation of lymph, shock.

4. Skin
Structure, functions of skin, temperature regulation by skin.

5. Digestive System
Mastication, deglutition, digestive juices saliva, gastric juice, pancreatic, bile and intestinal juices, their composition, function and mechanism of secretions. Movement of stomach and intestine, function of large intestine, defecation, functions of liver and gall bladder. 

Pharmaceutical Biochemistry Cr. Hrs. 3

1. General Introduction and Basic Biochemical Principles
Role of pharmaceutical biochemistry in the health profession, nature of biochemical reactions.

2. Basic Chemistry of Biomolecules
a Carbohydrates
Chemistry, classification, reactions, optical activity biological and pharmaceutical importance of carbohydrates.

b Lipids
Chemistry of fatty acids and lipids classifications, (saponifiable and non saponifiable lipids, simple, complex and derived). Reactions of fatty acids and other lipids. Essential fatty acids, biological and pharmaceutical importance of lipids.

c Proteins and Aminoacids
Chemistry, classification, reactions of proteins and amino acids. Organizational level, macromolecular nature, biological and pharmaceutical importance of proteins and amino acids.

3. Metabolic Fate of Biomolecules

a Carbohydrates
Brief digestion and absorption, aerobic and anaerobic breakdown of glucose, glycolysis, pentose phosphate pathway, glycogenolysis, gluconeogenesis, citric acid cycle, energetics of various metabolic processes.

b Lipids
Brief digestion and absorption, oxidation of fatty acids through beta oxidation. Biosynthesis of fatty acids, neutral lipids, and cholesterol.

c Proteins and Amino-acids
Brief digestion and absorption, metabolism of essential and non essential amino acids. Biosynthesis and catabolism of Haemins and porphyrin compounds.

4. Bioenergetics
Principles of bioenergetics, electron transport chain and oxidative phosphorylation.

5. Enzymes
Chemistry, classification, mode of action, kinetics (Michaelis Menten Equation and some modifications). Inhibition, activation. specificity, alleosteric enzymes. Factors affecting the rate of an enzyme catalyzed reaction. Biological and pharmaceutical importance, mechanism of action of some important enzyme (Chymotrypsin, Ribonuclease).

Pharmaceutical Biochemistry (Practical) Cr. Hrs. 3

1. Qualitative Analysis
Carbohydrates, amino acids, peptides and proteins. Lipids and sterols (Cholesterol) bile salts and bilirubin. Blood analysis-sugar, uric acid, bilirubin, cholesterol and creatinine.

2. Quantitative Analysis
Carbohydrates–Glucose (reducing sugar) and any other carbohydrate using Benedict and anthrone method. Amino acids. Peptides and proteins using Biuret and Ninhydrin (Spectrophotometric) method. Analysis of normal and abnormal components of urine–sugar. Uric acid, bilirubin, cholesterol and creatinine. 

First Professional Second Semester

Physiology and Histology Cr. Hrs. 3

1. Respiratory System 
Mechanics of respiration, intrathoracic, intrapulmonary pressure. Pulmonary ventilation. Lungs volume and capacities. Composition of inspired air, expired air and alveolar air, carriage of oxygen and CO2 by the blood. Regulation of breathing (Nervous and Chemical control).

2. Urinary System
Urine formation-composition of urine, G.F.R. urea clearance. Formation of concentrated and diluted urine. Regulation of osmolarity, and pH (acidic and basic urine), process of nicturation (nervous control), renal failures.

3. Nervous System
Spinal reflexes. Reflex regulation of movement and posture. Cerebral cortex functions. Voluntary movements. Descending tracts of spinal cord. Basal ganglia, cerebellum, thalamus C.S.F. 
Autonomic nervous system.

4. Special senses
Elementary knowledge of structure and function of the special senses.

5. Endocrinology
Definition of hormone. Nature of different types of hormone. Mechanism of action of hormone including pituitary hormones with abnormalities, thyroid gland with pathologies para thyroid hormone, pancreatic hormone with diabetes mellitus, Adrenal glands with cushing syndrome, Addison disease. Male and female sex hormones.

6. Histology
Underlying principles of histological techniques and staining specific tissues. Staining of paraffin and frozen sections.

Pharmaceutical Biochemistry Cr. Hrs. 3

1. Vitamins
Chemistry, classification (fat-soluble and water-soluble vitamins), biological and pharmaceutical importance of vitamins.

2. Hormones
Chemistry, classification (proteinous and non-proteinous hormones, amino acid derivatives, steroids). Biological and pharmaceutical importance of hormones.

3. Regulation of Metabolic Processes
Role of Vitamins
Physiological role of fat-soluble (A.D.E and K) water-soluble (members of b-complex family and ascorbic acid). Coenzymes and their role in the regulation of metabolic processes. Niacin, thiamine, riboflavin, pyridoxine, pantothinicail, biotin, folic acid and vitamin B12.
Receptor Mediated Regulation (Hormones)
Mechanism of action of hormones, physiological roles of various hormones, site of synthesis and target, sites of hormones.Action, regulation, signal transaction mechanism. Role of cAMP, calcium ions and phosphoinositides, tyrosin kinase, jakkinase in the regulation of metabolic processes.

4. Gene Expression
Regulation of gene expression, chemistry, transcription and translation, introduction to biotechnology and genetic engineering. Basic principles of recombittant DNA technology, Pharmaceutical applications. Genetic switch, inducers, fusion, genes, regulatory genes, zinc finger Helix-turn helix motif, the leucine-zipper motif.

Anatomy Cr. Hrs. 2

1. Introduction
Anatomical terminology, definition of cell, tissue, organ, structure of cell membrane, cytoplasm, organelles, nucleus, cell cycle.
2. Tissues of Body
Cartilage, bone structure and types of bones and joints. 
3. Muscle
Structure of skeletal, smooth muscles, and cardiac muscles.
4. Integumentary System
Including skin, glands, hair and nail.
5. Cardio Vascular System
Structure of heart, location, blood supply to heart, types of blood vessels. 
6. Elementary System
Name and structure of different parts of elementary system and their interrelationship.
7. Urinary System
Name and structure of organs of urinary system and their inter relationship. 
8. Male and Female Reproductive Systems
Endocrine system including pituitary, thyroid and adrenal glands with their structures.

1. Nervous System
Including neuron, organization of CNS, brain, cerebrum, cerebellum, brain stem, pons and medulla oblongata, thalamus, hypothalamus, cranial nerves. Internal structure of spinal cord CSF, sensory and motor pathways, spinal reflexes, peripheral spinal nerves.
2. Autonomic Nervous System
Sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous system.

Second Professional First Semester

Physiology & Histology (Practical) Cr. Hrs. 3

1. Introduction Experimental Physiology
2. Blood
Determination of haemoglobin. Determination of ESR, RBC count, WBC count, differential leucocyte count, bleeding and clotting time, blood groups
3. Respiration
Estimation of vital capacity and its relation to posture and standard vital capacity. Determination of tidal volume. Demonstration of artificial respiration
4. C.V.S.
Recording of arterial pulse, recording of arterial B.P.
5. Eye
Visual activity, far vision, near vision and field of vision.
6. C.N.S.
Nerve muscle preparation in frog, effect of temperature on muscle
Demonstration of special reflexes.
7. Histology
Demonstration, preparation and staining of the slides, histological examination of slides, epithelium, connective tissue, muscle tissue, organ –system –lungs, kidney, appendicitis, skin, gall–bladder, stomach, intestine.

Pharmacology & Therapeutics (I) Cr. Hrs. 3

1. Introduction
History and scope of Pharmacology, classification of Pharmacology. Drugs and their sources
2. Definitions
Bioavailability, bioequivalence therapeutic index, potency, efficacy, risk benefit ratio, selective toxicity, plasma half-life, dose response curve, area under curve, volume of distribution.
3. Drugs Delivery System
Advantages and disadvantages of oral medication. Advantages and disadvantages non-oral medication.
4. Pharmacokinetics 
Drug solubility and passage of drugs across body membranes, plasma concentration of drugs and various factors affecting it. Factors affecting absorption, distribution, biotransformation and excretion.
5. Pharmacodynamics
Drug receptors and theories, mechanism of drug action, specificity of drug action, and factors modifying the action. 
6. Drugs Acting on Blood
Antianemic (Vit B12, folic acid, iron). Coagulants and anticoagulants

7. Drugs Acting on G.I.T. System
Gastroesophageal reflux disease and its treatment. Emesis and antiemetics. Constipation and laxatives. Diarrhea and antidiarrheals. Peptic and duodenal ulcer, drugs used in their treatments. Drugs for inflammatory bowel disease, and for cholelithiasis. Prokinetics.

Pathology Cr. Hrs. 2

1. Scope of Pathology and Concept of Diseases
2. Definition and Terminology

Ischemia ….. Hypoxia
Necrosis ….. Infraction
Atrophy ….. Hypertrophy
Hyperplasia ….. Metaplasia
Aplasia ….. Anaplasia

3. Response of Body to Injury and Infection
Acute inflammation, chronic inflammation. Immunity allergy and hyper sensitivity.
4. Specific Diseases
Peptic and duodenal ulcer, hypertension. M.I., SLE, Nephrotic syndrome, COPD.
5. Diagnosis and Treatment of Cancer
Fate, survival and prognosis of tumors. Leukaemia, malignant carcinoma, sarcoma lymphoma.

Second Professional Second Semester

Systemic Pharmacology Cr. Hrs. 3

1. Autonomic Nervous System
Neurotransmitters in ANS, their synthesis, release and fate.

2. Drugs Acting on ANS
Sympathetic agonists. Sympathetic antagonists. Parasympathetic agonists and anticholinestrase inhibitors. Parasympathetic antagonists. Ganglionic stimulants. Ganglionic blockers. Neuromuscular blockers.

3. Autacoids and their Antagonists
Serotonin and serotonin antagonist. Other autocoids.

4. Inflammatory Disorders
Medication for inflammatory disorders. Uricouric agents.
Histamines and antihistamines

5. Drugs Acting on Respiratory System
Drugs used for Cough
Antitussives, demulcents, steam inhalation, local anaesthetics. Narcotic antitussives, non-narcotic antitussives. Expectorants. Mucolytic agents.

6. Drug Treatment of Bronchial Asthma and C.O.P.D.
Bronchodilators. Corticosteroids and other anti-inflammatory drugs. Muscarinic receptor antagonists. Mast cell stabilizers. Bagonists, Leukotriane inhibitors.

Islamic Ideology Pakistan Studies Cr. Hrs. 2

1. The Need of Religion 
A critical analysis of the sources of human knowledge and importance of why (Divine revelation). 
2. Islamic Concept of Life 
Islamic concept of universe, the position of mankind, the earth, the goal for men's activities. 
3. Islamic Beliefs 
Iman and aqida the role of iman in character building and in the development of civilisation. Aqida-e-Tawhid (Belief in unity of God) its details and its impact on character. Iman bil Malaikah (Belief in Angles). Aqida Risalat (Belief in Prophethood) its details, its importance in the development of islamic civilization, the distinguishing features of Muhammad Prophethood, the doctrine of the last prophet. Iman bil Kutub (Belief in the revealed books). Aqida Akhrat (belief in the life hereafter) its details, Quranic style of arguments on the life hereafter. The impact of Aqida Akhrat on individual and society. A comparison and Islamic concept of Ibadat with other religions. Salat (Prayer). Zakat, its philosophy, rates and minimum zakat amount, its impact on economy. Sawm (Fasting). Haj (Pilgrimage): Manasik and its importance.
4. Pakistan Studies
Ideology of Pakistan and its basic elements, two nation theory. Aims and objective for establishment of Pakistan. The Khilafat Movement. The struggle for Islamic System (with the special reference to Constitution of Pakistan 1973). The common problems of Muslim Ummah and their solutions.
5. Islamic Moral Values 
Philosophy of morality in Islamic important moral values.

Third Professional First Semester

Systemic Pharmacology Cr. Hrs. 3

1. Drugs Acting on Cardio Vascular System
Angina and antianginal drugs. Thrombosis and thrombolytic agents. Congestive heart failure and its treatment. Cardioactive glycosides. Bipyridines. ?-adrenergic blockers. Xanthine derivatives. Vasodilators. Antiarrhythmic drugs. Hyperlipidemia and hypocholesterolemic agents. Hypertension and antihypertensives.
2. Drugs Acting on Genitourinary System 
Diuretics. Oxytoxic drugs
3. Drugs Acting on Reproductive System
Contraceptive. Fertility drugs. Testosterone and contraception in males. Erectile dysfunction and pharmacotherapy
4. Drug Delivery of Dermatological Agents
Factors affecting topical absorption of drugs. Pharmacology of dermatological agents.

Pathology Practical Cr. Hrs. 3

1. Study of Pathological Slides of various Pathological Conditions
Acute inflammation. Chronic inflammation. Chronic specific inflammation. Different types of degeneration. Thrombosis, embolism, infarction, necrosis, gangrene, hyperplasia, metaplasis, pigmentation, calcification, C.V.C., papilloma, adenoma, chondroma, fibroma, leomyoma, neofibroma, sq. cell carcinoma, Basal cell carcinoma, transitional cell carcinoma.
Adenocarcinoma, fibrocarcinoma, rhadomyosarcoma, leomyosarcoma, lymphosarcoma, liposareoma, reticular cell sarcoma, Hodgkin’s disease, breast carcinoma, osteogenic, Sarcoma, osteoclastoma.

2. Examination of Different Body Fluids in various Pathological Conditions
Urine complete examination stool examination, blood complete examination. Semen examination, cerebrospinal fluid examination, pericardial fluid examination, pleural fluid examination, aseptic fluid examination, blood sugar, blood urea, blood cholesterol etc.

1. Tests for various Specimens of Clinical Importance
Techniques of clinical blood examination for various diseases, gastric analysis, Tests for liver function test, renal function test. Test for endocrine abnormalities, biopsies and cytological techniques.

Third Professional Second Semester

Pharmacology (Practical) Cr. Hrs. 3

1. Research methods and experimental techniques in pharmacology
2. Development of experimental design and animal handling
3. Routes of administration
4. Preparation of standard solutions
i. Ringer solution, ii. Tyrode solution, iii. Kerb solution, iv. Normal saline solution
5. To demonstrate the effects of sympathomimetic and sympatholytic drugs on frog’s heart
6. To demonstrate the effects of parasympathomimetic and para-sympatholytic drugs on frog’s heart.
7. To demonstrate the effects of an unknown drug on frog’s heart
8. To demonstrate the effects of vasoconstrictor drugs on frog’s blood vessels
9. To demonstrate the effects of stimulant drugs on rabbit’s intestine
10. To demonstrate the effects of depressant drugs on rabbit’s intestine
11. To demonstrate the effects of an unknown drug on rabbit’s intestine and identify the (unknown) drug.
12. To study the effects of adrenaline on rabbit’s eyes.
13. To study the effects of homatropine on rabbit’s eyes.
14. To study the effects of pilocarpine on rabbit’s eyes.
15. To study the effects of local anaesthetic drug.
16. To identify the unknown drug and differentiate its effects on rabbit’s eyes.

Fourth Professional First Semester

Systemic Pharmacology Cr. Hrs. 3

1. Drug Acting on Central Nervous System
Hypnotic and sedatives, analgesics, narcotic analgesics and opioid antagonists, anxiolytics, antipsychotics, antidepressants, antimanic, cerebral stimulants, spinal cord stimulants, drug treatment of epilepsy, drug treatment of parkinsonism and other movement disorders.
2. Hormones Antagonists and Other Agents Affecting Endocrine Function
Endocrine function and dysfunctions. Drugs used in various endocrine disorders.
3. Ocular Pharmacology
Use of autonomic agents in eyes, chemotherapy of diseases in eye.
Use of immunomodulatory drugs for opthalmic therapy. Use of anesthetics in ophthalmic procedures.
4. Chemotherapy
Principles of cell proliferation and chemotherapy. Principals of combination therapy. Resistance of chemotherapy.
Classification of Drugs
Antimicrobials, antivirals, antiprotozoals, antifungal, anthelminthics, antineoplastic, drug treatment of leprosy, anti-tubercular.

Fourth Professional Second Semester

Pharmacology (Practical) Cr. Hrs. 3

1. To study the convulsant effect of strychnine and picrotoxin in frogs and to determine the site of action.
2. To observe the effect of drugs on gross behavioural changes of animal.
3. To observe the effect of drugs on exploratory behaviour of mice.
4. To identify the unknown (convulsant) drug and determine its site of action.
5. To study the effects of adrenaline on rabbit eyes.
6. To study the effects of pilocarpine on rabbit eyes.
7. To study the effects of homatropine on rabbit eyes.
8. To identify and observe the effects of unknown drugs on human eyes.
9. To observe the effect of histamine on human skin.
10. To observe the effect of a diuretic in animal.
11. To observe the hypoglycaemic effect of drugs in rabbit.
12. To study the effects of local anaesthetic drugs on human and the nerve plexus of frog.
13. To identify and differentiate the effects of unknown drug on human and the nerve plexus of frog.
14. To demonstrate the effects of acetylcholine on the rectus abdominus muscle of frog and competitive pharmacological antagonism by Neuromuscular blocking agents.
15. To identify the unknown drug by performing pharmacological competitive antagonism on rectus abdominus muscle of frog.
16. To study the anticoagulant effects of heparin and oral aticoagulants on rabbits.
17. To identify the unknown anticoagulant drug using rabbits.
18. To identify unknown concentration of acetylcholine from graded dose-response curves.
19. To observe the effect of drug on swimming induced depression.
20. To observe the effects of drug on learning behaviour of animal.

Fifth Professional First Semester


Clinical Pharmacology Cr. Hrs. 3

1. Introduction to Clinical Pharmacology
Terminology, basic components and scope.

2. Role of Drug Monitoring in Therapeutics
Patient profile, diseases profile, drug profile, monitoring responses, monitoring plasma concentration.

3. Factors Affecting Drug Response
Pharmacogentics, drug interactions.

4. Development of New Drugs
Process of drug development, preclinical studies, types of clinical trials, choice of patients, exclusion criteria of patients

5. Drugs in Pregnancy
Prescribing in pregnancy, harmful effects on fetus, pharma-cokinetics in pregnancy.

6. Drugs in Infants and Children
Practical aspects of prescribing, pharmacokinetics.

7. Drugs in Elderly 
Pharmacokinetics changes, pharmacodynamic changes.

8. Drug Toxicity
Adverse drug reactions, monitoring adverse drug reactions, benefit risk ratio.

9. Pharmacology of Nutrients

Fifth Professional Second Semester

Toxicology Cr. Hrs. 3

1. Principles of Toxicology
Principles of treatment of poisoning, classification of toxic agents, spectrum of undesired effects, mechanisms of toxicity, risk assessment.

2. Disposition of Toxicants
Absorption, distribution and elimination of toxicants, biotransformation of xenobiotics, toxicokinetics.

3. Target Organs of Toxicity
Toxic responses of the blood, toxic responses of the liver, toxic responses of the heart, toxic responses of the kidney, toxic responses of reproductive system.

4. Environmental Toxicology
Air pollution, ecotoxicology, toxic effects of plants.

5. Application of Toxicology
Food toxicology, forensic toxicology, clinical toxicology, occupational toxicology.

(For All Courses of Pharmacology)

Arthur C. Gyuton and John E. Hall. Textbook of Medical Physiology. 10th edn. W.B. Saunders, Philadelphia (2000).
Bernard Rosner. Fundamentals of Biostatistics, 4th edition Wadsworth Publishing Company, USA (1995).
Bertram G. Katzung. Basic and Clinical Pharmacology, 8th edition, A Lange Medical Book. London
Beth Dawson-Saunder. Basic and Clinical Biostatistics, 3rd edition, A Lange Medical Book. London
Cesare R. Sirtori and others. Clinical Pharmacology. McGraw-Hill, London, (2000).
Charles R. Craig. Modern Pharmacology, 4th edition, Little Brown and Company, USA.
Clive Page Michael Curtis. Integrated Pharmacology, 2nd edition, Mosby International Limited. New York (2002).
Curtis D.Klaassen. Casarett & Doull’s Toxicology the basic science of poisons 5th edition. McGraw Hill Medical Publishing Division, London (2001).
Doughlas F. Paulsin. Basic Histology: Examination and Board Review. Prentice Hall Internal Inc. (1990).
Eugenia M. Fulcher, Cathy Dubeansky & Robert M. Fulcher. Pharmacology: Principles and Application: A Worktext for Allied Health Professionals. Saunders, Philadelphia (2003).
Frederic H. Martini. Fundamentals of Anatomy and Physiology 4th edn. Prentice Hall, New Jersey (1998).
Gerard J. Tortora & Sandra Reynold Grabowski. Principles of Anatomy and Physiology. 9th edn. John Willey & Sons, New York (2000).
Goodman & GillMan’s. The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics 10th edition McGraw-Hill, USA (2001). 
Harold-Kalant. Principles of Medical Pharmacology, 6th edition, Oxford University Press, Toronto, London.
James M. Ritter. A Text Book of Clinical Pharmacology, 4th edition.
Joseph T. Dipiro, Pharmacotherapy “A Patho Physiologic Approach” 5th edition, McGraw-Hill, USA (2002).
Judith E. Tintinali. Emergency Medicine, 5th edition, McGraw-Hill Health Profession Division, USA (2000).
Lawrence M. Tierney. Current Medical Diagnosis and Treatment, 40th edition, Lange Medical Books, McGraw-Hill Medical Publishing Division, London (2001).
Martin Gwent Lewis and Thomas K. Barton. Appleton & Lange’s Review of General Pathology. 3rd edn. Prentince Hall International Inc. (1993).
Mary Aneekoda-Kimble. Applied Therapeutics “The Clinical Use of Drugs” 7th edition. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins USA (2001).
Pamela C. Champe & Richard A. Harvey. Lipincott’s Illustrated Review: Biochemistry. 2nd edn. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Philadelphia (1994).
Peter Winstanley and Tom Walley. Medical Pharmacology: A Clinical Care Text for Integrated Curricula with Self-Assessment. 2nd ed. Churchill Livingston, Edinburgh (2002).
Ramzi S. Cotran, Vincay Kumar & Stanley L. Robbins. Robbins Pathologic Basis of Diseases. 5th edn. W.B. Saunders Company, Philadelphia (1994).
Rang H.P., Dale M.M. Pharmacology, 4th edition, Churchill Living Stone, England.
Robert K. Murray. Harper’s Illustrated Biochemistry. 26th edn. Lange Medical Books, McGraw Hill, New York (2000).
Ronald E. Walpole. Introduction to Statistics, 3rd edition, Macmillan Publishing Co. Inc. New York.
Russell J. Greene and Norman D. Harris. Pathology and Therapeutics for Pharmacists: A Basis for Clinical Pharmacy Practice. Chapman & Hall, London (1993).
Timbrell J.A. Introduction to Toxiolocoy. Taylor & Francis Ltd. (1992).